Common problems in rare congenital heart diseases

Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pająk

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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common developmental anomaly and is found in about 1% of all live-born children.
Recent progress in cardiac surgery and pediatric cardiology has resulted in large numbers of adult patients who have undergone surgical correction of complex congenital heart defects. It is estimated that about 85% of newborns with heart defects will reach adulthood.


rare cardiovascular disease; psychology; sociology; emotional problems


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