Survival analysis of time to develop cardiovascular complications and its predictors among hypertensive patients treated in the Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study (RCD code: VIII)
Objective: Although hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular complications, time to develop cardiovascular complications among hypertensive patients has not been adequately investigated in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess time to
develop cardiovascular complications and its predictors among adult hypertensive patients at the Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Result: A total of 578 hypertensive patients from the Cardiology Department were included in the study and followed for a total of 60 months (median 28 months). Half of the participants (290, 50.2%) were females. The median age of subjects was 54 years. Out of the 578 hypertensive patients who were analysed, 25.4% of them developed a cardiovascular complication. The incidence rate was 8.25 per 1000 persons per month. Significant predictors in the development of cardiovascular complications among hypertensive patients were age [AHR = 1.03 (95% CI=1.016, 1.046)], baseline cardiovascular complications [AHR=3.03 (95% CI=2.009, 4.870)], proteinuria [AHR=3.9 (95% CI=1.3, 11.68)], baseline systolic blood pressure [AHR =1.01 (95% CI=1.003, 2.012)], and baseline diastolic blood pres‐sure [AHR = 1.013 (95% CI=1.005, 2.021)]. JRCD 2019; 4 (4): xx–xx
Kotwani P, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, et al. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross‑sectional study. BMC Public Health 2013;13:1151.
Ekanem US, Opara DC, Akwaowo CD. High blood pressure in a semiurban community in south‑south Nigeria: a community‑based study. Afr Health Sci 2013; 13(1): 56–61.
Keates AK, Mocumbi AO, Ntsekhe M, et al. Cardiovascular disease in Africa: epidemiological profile and challenges. Nature Reviews Cardiology 2017;14:273.
Klabunde R. Cardiovascular physiology concepts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2011.
World Health Organization. Global Burden of Deaths and DALYs. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/bodgbddeathdalyestimates.xls. 2010.
Hajar R. ramingham Contribution to Cardiovascular Disease. Heart Views 2016; 7 (2): 78–81
World Health Organization. Cardiovascular disease On World Heart Day WHO calls for accelerated action to prevent the world’s leading global killer. 2017.
Lopez AD. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. Washington, DC Oxford University Press. 2006.
Tesfaye B, Haile D, Lake B, et al. Uncontrolled hypertension and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients on follow‑up at Jimma University Teaching and Specialized Hospital: cross‑sectional study. Research Reports
in Clinical Cardiology 30 March 2017; 8: 21–29.
Yohannes SM, Mengesha ZB. Adherence to antihypertensive treatment and associated factors among patients for follow up at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2012;12(1):282.
Tesfaye A. Blood pressure control associates and antihypertensive pharmacotherapy patterns in Tikur Anbessa General Specialized Hospital Chronic Care Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Am J Biomed Life Sci 2015;3(3):41–48.
World Health Organization. Causes of Death [online database]. Geneva. 2008.
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990- 2010: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012:2224−2260.
Mendis S, Pekka P, Norrving B. Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. 2011: 155.
McGill HC, McMahan CA, Gidding SS. Preventing heart disease in the 21st century: implications of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. Circulation 2008;117 (9): 1216–1227.
Hendriks ME, Wit FW, Roos MT, et al. Hypertension in sub‑Saharan Africa: cross‑sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities. PLoS One 2012;7(3):1–10.
Ethiopia Ministry Of Health. Health Sector Transformation Plan 2015/16 – 2019/20. 2015.
World Health Organization Report. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. http://wwwwhoint/wh. 2013.
Belete H, Fessahaye A. The pattern of cardiac diseases at the cardiac clinic of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, South West EthiopiaEthiop J Health Sci 2010;20(2): 99-105.
Gidey K, Hailu A, Bayray A. Pattern and outcome of medical intensive care unit admissions to ayder comprehensive specialized hospital in tigray, ethiopia. Ethiopia Med J 2018;56(1).
Sennay A, Gebremariam A, Hannah S. Types, risk profiles, and outcomes of stroke patients in a tertiary teaching hospital in northern Ethiopia. NeurologicalSci 2016;3:41–47.
Bloom DE, Cafiero E, Jané‑Llopis E, et al.The global economic burden of noncommunicable diseases. PGDA working paper No. 87. Boston, MA: Harvard Institute for Global Health, Program on the Global Demography of Aging. Available at http://wwwhsphharvardedu/program‑on‑the‑global‑demog-raphy‑of aging/WorkingPapers/2012/PGDA_WP_87pdf. 2012.
Tolla G. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in Ethiopia: a cost‑effectiveness analysis. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2016.
Unated Nations General Assembly Resolution. Resolution 70/1. t. A/Res/70/1. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations General Assembly. New York 2015.
Tadege GM. Survival Analysis of Time to Cardiovascular Disease Complication of Hypertensive Patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital in Bahir‑Dar, Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Biom Biostat 2017;8(5).
Mugure G, Karama M, Kyobutungi C, et al. Correlates for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic hypertensive patients attending outreach clinics in two Nairobi slums Kenya Gladys. Pan Afr Med J 2014;19:1–11.
Weycker D, Nichols GA, Keeffe‑Rosetti MO, et al. Risk‑Factor Clustering and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Hypertensive Patients. American Journal of Hypertension. 2007;20 (6).
Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life‑years lost, and age‑specific associations in 1·25 million people. The Lancet 2014;383(9932):1899–1911.
Tefera T. The changing trend of cardiovascular disease and its clinical characteristics in Ethiopia: hospital‑based observational study. 2017.
Trijp MJ, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular disease on the basis of blood pressure measurements more reliable with systolic than with diastolic measurement. 2003;147 (30): 1456–1459.
Haines A, Patterson D, Rayner M, et al. Prevention of cardiovascular disease. Occas Pap R Coll Gen Pract 1992: 67–78.
Thom T. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2006 Update A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee 113: 2006:85-151.
AMKDG. Explaining the sex difference in coronary heart disease mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus a meta‑analysis. Arch Intern MED 162: 2002:1737–1745.
Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, et al. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men longitudinal population study. BMJ 316. 1998:1043–1047.
Van den Hoogen P, Feskens E, Nagelkerke N, et al. The Relation between Blood Pressure and Mortality Due to Coronary Heart Disease among Men in Different Parts of the World. N Engl J Med 2000; 2:1–8.
Verdecchia P. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure: prognostic implications. 2001; 2 (4): 369–374.
- There are currently no refbacks.